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  • The cruise EMB209 was carried out as a joined cruise of the environmental monitoring program of the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) and the Baltic Sea long term observation program of the Leibniz-Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemuende (IOW). It was the second cruise in a series of five expeditions performed annually. The data acquired are used for the regular national and international assessments of the state of the Baltic Sea and provide the scientific basis for measures to be taken for the protection of the ecosystem Baltic Sea. The cruise was performed in partly bad weather conditions. However, all planned research activities were realised.

  • Studies of the spatial and temporal variations of hydrographic, hydrochemical and hydrobiological parameters in the frame of the COMBINE Programme of HELCOM as well as measurements for the IOW's long term data set. It was the first cruise in a series of five expeditions performed annually. The data acquired are used for the regular national and international assessments of the state of the Baltic Sea, and provide the scientific basis for measures to be taken for the protection of the ecosystem Baltic Sea. The cruise was performed in permanently windy weather conditions, 10 out of 13 days with 6-9 Bft. Nearly all of the planned work programme were realised, but the scanfish profiles in the eastern and western Gotland Basin could not be done because of bad weather /lack of time.

  • The cruise contributes to the international environmental monitoring program of the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) carried out by the Leibniz-Institute for Baltic Sea Research in Warnemünde (IOW). The acquired data will be used for the regular national and international assessments of the state of the Baltic Sea (e.g. HELCOM 2018) and the assessment of long-term trends in the hydrographical and biological data. During the expedition, research was conducted at 139 stations aiming at the description of the hydrographic and chemical situation along a transect from the western Baltic Sea (Kiel Bight, Bay of Mecklenburg) to the northern Baltic Sea via the major Basins (Arkona Sea, Bornholm Basin, Gotland Sea including Farö Channel, Landsort Deep, Karlsö Deep). Four additional traverse transects were conducted in the western and eastern Gotland Basin in order to investigate the lateral transport of water into the deeper basin. At selected stations, samples were taken to determine nutrient concentrations and various biological parameters describing the phyto- and zooplankton taxonomic composition/ abundance. For projektwork, additional zooplnakton samples were taken for the establishment of live cultures of zooplnakton and the taxonomic analysis of zooplankton in the Baltic Sea using molecular metabarcoding

  • The cruise EMB-218 was carried out as a joined cruise of the environmental monitoring program of the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) and the Baltic Sea long term observation program of the Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde (IOW). It was the fourth cruise in 2019 in a series of five expeditions performed annually. The data acquired are used for the regular national and international assessments of the state of the Baltic Sea, and provide the scientific basis for measures to be taken for the protection of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. The cruise was performed at fair weather conditions that the challenging station grid of 104 stations was successfully completed.

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    A marine physical biogeochemical model simulation was performed with the model MOM-ERGOM for the years 1985 to 2014 covering the Baltic Sea. Previously, MOM-ERGOM had been initialized for several decades. The model output has been validated with measurement data of the "IOW Baltic Monitoring and long-term data program" (https://www.io-warnemuende.de/iowdb.html) and from the HELCOM database (http://ocean.ices.dk/helcom/Helcom.aspx). The years 1995 to 2014 are available here. The model simulation was forced by coastDat2 COSMO-CLM data (doi: 10.1594/WDCC/coastDat-2_COSMO-CLM). Riverine phosphorus input of the Warnow River was calculated with the Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT; Bauwe et al., 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ecohyd.2019.03.003). Phosphorus from the Warnow River has been tagged in the model simulation according to a method by Menésguen et al. (2006, 10.4319/lo.2006.51.1_part_2.0591). Therefore, all phosphorus-containing model variables exist twice in the output: once as regular variables and once as tagged variable. The phosphorus input by the Warnow River based on real phosphorus release patterns and real atmospheric conditions was modified in order to comply with BASP (Baltic Sea Action Plan) targets (PhosWaM SWAT case "15"). The turnover of phosphorus compounds in the Unterwarnow was calculated based on the "Unterwarnow turnover estimation v04" (see final project report of PhosWaM for details).The work was performed within the project PhosWaM funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, FKZ 033W042, https://www.phoswam.de). PhosWaM is one of 15 joint research projects in the funding measured ReWaM of the funding priority NaWaM in BMBF framework program FONA (details in the project description). The simulation was performed at the North-German Supercomputing Alliance (HLRN). The model output data were processed and evaluated on servers provided by the project 'PROSO - Prozesse von Spurenstoffen in der Ostsee' (FKZ 03F0779A).

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    A marine physical biogeochemical model simulation was performed with the model MOM-ERGOM for the years 1985 to 2014 covering the Baltic Sea. Previously, MOM-ERGOM had been initialized for several decades. The model output has been validated with measurement data of the "IOW Baltic Monitoring and long-term data program" (https://www.io-warnemuende.de/iowdb.html) and from the HELCOM database (http://ocean.ices.dk/helcom/Helcom.aspx). The years 1995 to 2014 are available here. The model simulation was forced by coastDat2 COSMO-CLM data (doi: 10.1594/WDCC/coastDat-2_COSMO-CLM). Riverine phosphorus input of the Warnow River was calculated with the Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT; Bauwe et al., 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ecohyd.2019.03.003). Phosphorus from the Warnow River has been tagged in the model simulation according to a method by Menésguen et al. (2006, 10.4319/lo.2006.51.1_part_2.0591). Therefore, all phosphorus-containing model variables exist twice in the output: once as regular variables and once as tagged variable. The default phosphorus input by the Warnow River based on real phosphorus release patterns and real atmospheric conditions was used (PhosWaM SWAT case "ist"). The turnover of phosphorus compounds in the Unterwarnow was calculated based on the “Unterwarnow turnover estimation v04” (see final project report of PhosWaM for details).The work was performed within the project PhosWaM funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, FKZ 033W042, https://www.phoswam.de). PhosWaM is one of 15 joint research projects in the funding measured ReWaM of the funding priority NaWaM in BMBF framework program FONA (details in the project description). The simulation was performed at the North-German Supercomputing Alliance (HLRN). The model output data were processed and evaluated on servers provided by the project 'PROSO - Prozesse von Spurenstoffen in der Ostsee' (FKZ 03F0779A).

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    A marine physical biogeochemical model simulation was performed with the model MOM-ERGOM for the years 1985 to 2014 covering the Baltic Sea. Previously, MOM-ERGOM had been initialized for several decades. The model output has been validated with measurement data of the "IOW Baltic Monitoring and long-term data program" (https://www.io-warnemuende.de/iowdb.html) and from the HELCOM database (http://ocean.ices.dk/helcom/Helcom.aspx). The years 1995 to 2014 are available here. The model simulation was forced by coastDat2 COSMO-CLM data (doi: 10.1594/WDCC/coastDat-2_COSMO-CLM). Riverine phosphorus input of the Warnow River was calculated with the Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT; Bauwe et al., 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ecohyd.2019.03.003). Phosphorus from the Warnow River has been tagged in the model simulation according to a method by Menésguen et al. (2006, 10.4319/lo.2006.51.1_part_2.0591). Therefore, all phosphorus-containing model variables exist twice in the output: once as regular variables and once as tagged variable. The phosphorus input by the Warnow River based on real phosphorus release patterns and real atmospheric conditions was calculated and a Maximum Technical Feasible Reduction (MTFR) approach was applied (PhosWaM SWAT case "35"). The turnover of phosphorus compounds in the Unterwarnow was calculated based on the "Unterwarnow turnover estimation v04" (see final project report of PhosWaM for details).The work was performed within the project PhosWaM funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, FKZ 033W042, https://www.phoswam.de). PhosWaM is one of 15 joint research projects in the funding measured ReWaM of the funding priority NaWaM in BMBF framework program FONA (details in the project description). The simulation was performed at the North-German Supercomputing Alliance (HLRN). The model output data were processed and evaluated on servers provided by the project 'PROSO - Prozesse von Spurenstoffen in der Ostsee' (FKZ 03F0779A).

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    A marine physical biogeochemical model simulation was performed with the model MOM-ERGOM for the years 1985 to 2014 covering the Baltic Sea. Previously, MOM-ERGOM had been initialized for several decades. The model output has been validated with measurement data of the "IOW Baltic Monitoring and long-term data program" (https://www.io-warnemuende.de/iowdb.html) and from the HELCOM database (http://ocean.ices.dk/helcom/Helcom.aspx). The years 1995 to 2014 are available here. The model simulation was forced by coastDat2 COSMO-CLM data (doi: 10.1594/WDCC/coastDat-2_COSMO-CLM). Riverine phosphorus input of the Warnow River was calculated with the Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT; Bauwe et al., 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ecohyd.2019.03.003). Phosphorus from the Warnow River has been tagged in the model simulation according to a method by Menésguen et al. (2006, 10.4319/lo.2006.51.1_part_2.0591). Therefore, all phosphorus-containing model variables exist twice in the output: once as regular variables and once as tagged variable. The default phosphorus input by the Warnow River based on real phosphorus release patterns and real atmospheric conditions was used (PhosWaM SWAT case "ist"). The turnover of phosphorus compounds in the Unterwarnow was calculated based on the “Unterwarnow turnover estimation v04” (see final project report of PhosWaM for details).The work was performed within the project PhosWaM funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, FKZ 033W042, https://www.phoswam.de). PhosWaM is one of 15 joint research projects in the funding measured ReWaM of the funding priority NaWaM in BMBF framework program FONA (details in the project description). The simulation was performed at the North-German Supercomputing Alliance (HLRN). The model output data were processed and evaluated on servers provided by the project 'PROSO - Prozesse von Spurenstoffen in der Ostsee' (FKZ 03F0779A).

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    At 6 typical habitats of the SW Baltic Sea, macrozoobenthic samples were collected in January 2016 with Van Veen grab (sample area 0.1 m2, data is averaged per station based on 3 replicates at every station) and from short cores (sample area 0.00785 m2, data per core) after completing the pore-water analysis or incubation. Sediment was sieved using a 1.0 mm sieve mesh size and samples were preserved in 4% buffered formaldehyde–seawater solution. In the laboratory, the organisms were sorted, identified to species level, counted and weighted. The nomenclature was checked with World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS Editorial Board, 2018). Abundance and biomass data were standardized to an area of 1 m2. Ash-free dry weight (AFDW) biomass was estimated from the wet weight using species-specific conversion factors from the in-house list of the Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde. Environmental characteristics (including salinity, oxygen content, depth, sediment granulometry and organic content) were measured at each sampling event parallel to the collection of grab and cores samples. Data is explored in Gogina, M., Lipka, M., Woelfel, J., Liu, B., Morys, C., Böttcher, M.E., Zettler, M. L., 2018. In search of a field-based relationship between benthic macrofauna and biogeochemistry in a modern brackish coastal sea. Front. Mar. Sci. 5: 489, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00489 Keywords: benthic macrofauna, ecosystem functioning, nutrient fluxes, sediment biogeochemistry, pore-water gradients, Baltic Sea.

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    The Total Exchange Flow analysis framework computes consistent bulk values quantifying the estuarine exchange flow using salinity coordinates since salinity is the main contributor to density in estuaries and the salinity budget is entirely controlled by the exchange flow. For deeper and larger estuaries temperature may contribute equally or even more to the density. That is why we included potential temperature as a second coordinate to the Total Exchange Flow analysis framework which allows gaining insights in the potential temperature-salinity structure of the exchange flow as well as to compute consistent bulk potential temperature and therefore heat exchange values with the ocean. We applied this theory to the exchange flow of the Persian Gulf, a shallow, semi-enclosed marginal sea, where dominant evaporation leads to the formation of hyper-saline and dense Gulf water. This drives an inverse estuarine circulation which is analyzed with special interest on the seasonal cycle of the exchange flow. The exchange flow of the Persian Gulf is numerically simulated with the General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM) from 1993 to 2016 and validated against observations. Results show that a clear seasonal cycle exists with stronger exchange flow rates in the first half of the year. Furthermore, the composition of the outflowing water is investigated using passive tracers which mark different surface waters. The results show that in the first half of the year, most outflowing water comes from the southern coast, while in the second half most water originates from the north-western region.